Ok, introductory stuff: before python 2.5 generators were just a unidirectional computation structure. That means one could get values out of the generator. In python 2.5 we have the enhancements from PEP 342: Coroutines via Enhanced Generators - generators have 3 extra methods: sent, throw and close and the yield statement is a expression now. So the idea is that the generators are now a bidirectional computation structure: we can get values out and in the generator.
Here's a very simple example of what you can do now:
>>> def somegenerator(): ... print (yield 1) ... print (yield 2) ... >>> g = somegenerator() >>> print g.next() 1 >>> print g.send('a') a 2 >>>
Coroutines are program components that generalize subroutines to allow multiple entry points and suspending and resuming of execution at certain locations, to quote wikipedia. So we could look at a generator as a coroutine and the yield expressions as suspend/resume points. Take this example:
def somecoroutine(): data = (yield nonblocking_read(my_socket, nbytes))
Well, this example is actually from the PEP342 spec.Here's an example that uses cogen:
from cogen.core.coroutine import coroutine from cogen.core.schedulers import Scheduler from cogen.core.sockets import Socket from cogen.core.reactors import SelectReactor @coroutine def somecoroutine(): mysocket = Socket() # cogen's socket wrapper yield mysocket.connect(('www.google.com',80)) yield mysocket.writeall("GET / HTTP/1.1\r\nHost: www.google.com\r\n\r\n") result = yield mysocket.read(10240) print result sched = Scheduler(reactor=SelectReactor) sched.add(somecoroutine) sched.run() # this is the main loop
- coroutine is a special decorator that wrapps generators and functions alike in a special Coroutine class. So for example, if you decorate a function that isn't actualy a generator nothing bad will happen.
- Socket is a special wrapper that looks like the regular socket object (well, we actualy have a different flavour for usual recv and send, namely: read, readall, readline, write, writeall) but returns some special objects that we call operations. These operations instruct the cogen scheduler what to do with the coroutine.
- reactor=SelectReactor - there are actually 5 reactors: SelectReactor, PollReactor, KQueueReactor, EpollReactor, IOCPProactor. For KQueueReactor and EpollReactor you need C extension modules (that are provided in the lib directory) and for IOCPProactor you need the pywin32 extensions - also, IOCPProactor is in development atm. The reactor coupled with the socket operations handles all the nasty asynchronous networking code.
Also, there are a bunch of examples here.
Calls to other coroutines need to be made through the scheduler. To call another coroutine you yield a Call operation. Here's an example:
>>> from cogen.core.coroutine import coroutine >>> from cogen.core.schedulers import Scheduler >>> from cogen.core import events >>> >>> @coroutine ... def foo(): ... print 'foo' ... result = yield events.Call(bar, args=("ham",)) ... print result ... >>> @coroutine ... def bar(what): ... print 'bar' ... raise StopIteration("spam, %s and eggs" % what) ... >>> sched = Scheduler() >>> sched.add(foo) <foo Coroutine instance at 0x00D1E6B8 wrapping <function foo at 0x00C01B30>, state: NOTSTARTED> >>> sched.run() foo bar spam, ham and eggs >>>
cogen has also other usefull operations. Take for example this using signals:
>>> from cogen.core.coroutine import coroutine >>> from cogen.core.schedulers import Scheduler >>> from cogen.core import events >>> >>> @coroutine ... def foo(): ... yield events.Signal("bar", 'spam') ... yield events.Signal("bar", 'ham') ... yield events.Signal("bar", 'eggs') ... yield events.Sleep(3) ... >>> @coroutine ... def bar(): ... print (yield events.WaitForSignal("bar")) ... print (yield events.WaitForSignal("bar")) ... print (yield events.WaitForSignal("bar")) ... try: ... print (yield events.WaitForSignal("bar", timeout=2)) ... except events.OperationTimeout: ... print 'No more stuff!' ... >>> sched = Scheduler() >>> sched.add(bar) <bar Coroutine instance at 0x00D1E6B8 wrapping <function bar at 0x00C551F0>, state: NOTSTARTED> >>> sched.add(foo) <foo Coroutine instance at 0x00D1EC90 wrapping <function foo at 0x00C01B30>, state: NOTSTARTED> >>> sched.run() spam ham eggs No more stuff! >>>
- events.Signal(name, value) - name is an object that needs to be immutable (strings, tuples, numbers and frozen sets are immutable for example); value is what is yield events.WaitForSignal going to return.
- cogen's scheduler main loop (run) exits when there is no more stuff to run (no active coroutines, no socket operations waiting etc) - events.WaitForSignal does not qualify, otherwise the scheduler would run endlessly and nothing would happen (no other coroutines to raise the signal), that is why there is a events.Sleep(3) in foo.